What observations did Egger and Miller make that were contrary to Pavlov’s explanation of classical conditioning?

Summarize the final version of Mowrer’s theory and explain why it is considered basically cognitive in nature.
December 25, 2020
Why do you suppose so many individuals continue to smoke or consume alcohol?
December 25, 2020

1. Briefly describe Pavlov’s physiological explanation of conditioning, generalization, and discrimination.

2. What observations did Egger and Miller make that were contrary to Pavlov’s explanation of classical conditioning?

3. According to Pavlov, what determines how we respond to the environment at any given time?

4. Discuss the major differences and similarities between instrumental and classical conditioning.