Explain the difference between internal and external evidence.

Language or literacy development.
November 26, 2020
Aspects of everyday conversation.
November 26, 2020
  • Style: APA
  • Number of pages: 2 pages/double spaced (550 words)
  • PowerPoint slides: 0
  • Number of source/references: 3
  • Extra features: –

Order instructions:

Discussion Question:

Explain the difference between internal and external evidence. How can each of these types of evidence be utilized for quality improvement in the clinical setting?

Your initial posting should be at least 400 words in length and utilize at least one scholarly source other than the textbook.

GUIDE: Course Learning Objectives (CLO)

After completing this module, you will be able to do the following:

CLO 2: Describe the basic concepts, techniques, and methodologies underlying the research process and their application in the study of nursing problems.
CLO 4: Use information technology to retrieve hierarchical levels of evidence that addresses clinical questions
CLO 5: Utilize effective critical thinking and written communication skills in the critique of research for applicability to nursing practice.


This module identifies sources of nursing and healthcare knowledge and how to critically appraise knowledge for clinical decision making. The strength of scientific evidence is emphasized as a means to evaluate whether or not research is applicable for healthcare decision making. Both internal and external evidence are defined. The application of internal and external evidence for the implementation of evidence based practice and quality improvement projects in the clinical setting is discussed.

Quantitative research is defined as a means of determining how an intervention should be implemented. The critical appraisal of quantitative research studies is discussed in detail. Evidence appraisal questions focus on reliability, validity and applicability of the studies to clinical practice and decision making. Specific appraisal questions related to case studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized control trials and systematic review quantitative research designs are identified. Bias, confounding results, effect size and confidence intervals are examined as issues influencing the quality of quantitative studies.

Learning Materials

Melnyk, B. M. & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2015). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health. ISBN: 978-1-4511-9094-6 Chapters 1, 2, 3


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