1. Describe what kind of conditioned behavior is produced by positive and negative contingencies.
2. What, according to Seligman, is learned helplessness? Describe the circumstances under which learned helplessness develops.
3. How, according to Seligman, can learned helplessness be avoided?
4. Discuss Mackintosh’s theory of classical conditioning based on attention. Include in your answer Mackintosh’s explanation of blocking.