Explain very briefly what an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is, and how it can be used?

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1. What does the term anabolism mean? (2 marks).

2. Very briefly outline the role of maltase and lactase in the gastro-intestinal system? (2 marks).

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3. What is meant by deglutition? (1 mark).

4. Explain very briefly the relationship between aquaporin and anti-diuretic hormones in regulating blood volume or blood pressure (4 marks).

5. Myoglobin is present in the muscle – true or false? (1 mark).

6. How is the iron-haemoglobin-oxygen axis linked to physical activity and income security – give a short explanation (3 marks).

7. Explain very briefly what an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is, and how it can be used? (4 marks).

a. An EAR is a…

b. These values can be used to…..

8. Ferritin is the main storage protein for iron – true or false? (1 mark).

9. What role does phytate play in zinc bioavailability (1 mark).

10. Which type of fatty acid is this
(2 marks).

11. Very briefly explain the process leading to the successful absorption of vitamin B12 in the gastro-intestinal system (4 marks).

12. Describe the actions of vitamin C on iron absorption? (3 marks).

13. State the vitamin that has a role in the prevention of scurvy (1 mark).

14. Very briefly explain the role of zinc with reference to wellbeing in human (4 marks).

15. What are the primary components that contribute to an individual’s daily energy expenditure? (3 marks).

16. Define the term pernicious anaemia and which vitamin is deteriorated (3 marks).

17. In adult, it is recommended to consume 20-35% of daily calorie intake from total fat and less than 10% of daily calorie intake from saturated fat – true or false? (1 mark).

18. What is the end product of linoleic fatty acid metabolism in the human body (2 marks).

19. State the two vitamins commonly associated with megaloblastic (large cell) anaemia (2 marks).

20. The BNF recommends the consumption of 1.6L of fluid per day for women – true or false? (1 mark).

21. Explain very briefly the link between hookworm infection and anaemia? (3 marks).

22. Very briefly explain what lipoproteins are and describe their role in the human blood stream (4 marks).

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