The abstract is written after you have completed the entire paper, as it is a summary of what you have written. The abstract should include your research question, what you are trying to show through your research (this comes from your introduction). The abstract should also include citations as to where you found your evidence. Within the single paragraph of 150-250 words), you should share points of emphasis from your literature review, and your conclusions from your critical analysis section, in other words, how you answer the research question. The section titles for your paper after the abstract include the Introduction (one full page), the literature review (two to three full pages), and the critical analysis (one full page). Follow the directions under each section as to what information belongs in that location. Note that the abstract is the only paragraph in the entire document that is not first-line indented. Your abstract paragraph is flush with the left margin of your page and not centered or justified. You must also write in third person throughout the paper, that is no first or second person pronouns, and you should limit your use of other pronouns and use names whenever possible to reduce confusion.
Assignment Title (Same as on Page 1)
The introduction to your paper is a minimum of a full page explaining the topic of your research. In the case of this assignment, this will be the article you are critiquing, including why the article is important, and what were the objectives of your research. You should paraphrase and cite materials from your research that indicate the importance of the topic. Remember, citations must be last names of authors and dates. This can be done one of two ways, as a part of the sentence, or at the end of a sentence in parentheses. Examples of both follow in the next paragraph. Pay attention to the examples, because failure to do citations correctly is a major point deduction. Do not refer to authors by first names at all because this creates the possibility of gender bias.
There are two types of citations, parentheticals and nonparentheticals. Parentheticals are in parentheses and are not a part of the sentence, but refer to the sentence. These are very common in research publications, they include the names of the author or authors, and the publication year. An example of a parenthetical citations is as follows: A good deal of work has illustrated some of the tenets of building effective academic programs (Borden, Richardson, & Meyer, 2012). Non parenthetical citations, are a part of the sentence and are not in parentheses, an example is: Borden, Richardson, and Meyer (2012) established some of the important tenets in building effective academic programs. Note the key differences. Note that the parenthetical occurs before the period at the end of the sentence, the nonparenthetical could occur anywhere within the sentence as any noun would.
Any material you use in your work that is not your own original thought must be paraphrased, and cited. Do not use quotes, quotation marks, first or second person pronouns anywhere in your paper. Put everything in your own words. The introduction should be interesting, causing the reader to want to read the rest of the paper.
The literature review is a summary of what is said about your topic in the professional literature, it must be at least two full pages long. You must cite every article that is included in your reference page at least once in your literature review, a minimum of three to five quality sources are required this includes the article that is the focus of your paper, but you should also cite two related articles at a minimum. All of these should be psychology related journal articles or government publications of good standing and the majority journal articles (primary references), magazines and websites are not acceptable, you MUST use psychology related journal articles. The point of the literature review, is to present the evidence from research about the topic you chose. That is explain the findings in your own words.
Your literature review should be written in focused paragraphs, it can help to create a separate outline to show what you wish to discuss in each paragraph, then write your paper.
The critical analysis is an explanation of your opinion of what you found in the literature. This is your chance to explain what you believe based on the evidence you found. The critical analysis should be at least one page long, and should be a well written wrap-up to your paper in your own point of view.
This section does solicit your opinion, but your opinion should be stated in third person as an observer, rather than a participant. You may include some of the information listed below in your minimum of one-page critical analysis, do not do question and answer formatting or use bullets, just discuss the topic in good, solid sentences.
• Were you satisfied with the researchers’ findings?
• Are there additional questions you would like to have seen them address in their hypotheses?
• Did the findings leave you more or less interested in this topic?
• Would you like to see this train of research – perhaps with additional questions (hypotheses) – addressed in future research efforts?
This is your rare opportunity to actually criticise what a research psychologist has done, so make the most of it. If you disagree with how the research was conducted, say so, and tell me why based on the evidence. Examples might be:
• Did the researchers violate the principles of scientific methodology in any way?
• Did they fail to obtain proper consent?
• Were scientific principles appropriately followed?
Such comments on your part show me that you have actually thought about the article you have read.
Do not write in bullet statements or question and answer format, your writing must be a narrative, and should flow in paragraphs from point to point.
The last page of your assignment will be the References page. Go to the next page to see how that is presented. ALL work in APA Style is double-spaced. Section Headings are flush with the left margin and underlined. Your paper should be aligned with the left margin, not justified and not centered. The references require certain capitalization, content, and formatting details, pay close attention to the instructions. The template shows appropriate requisite formatting in the correct APA style. Your assignment should not exceed ten (10) pages, and that includes (1) the cover sheet, (2) the Abstract page, (3) introduction, one full page (4) a two to four page literature review, (5) a full page critical analysis, one full page, and (6) references page(s).
Borden, C., Richardson, P., & Meyer, S. J. (2012). Establishing successful postsecondary academic programs: A practical guide. Journal of Correctional Education, 63(2), 6-26. doi:10.1177/1540796917698831
The reference page is a page to itself, you should do a page break before the heading to make sure it is on a page by itself. Please note that the citations listed above are examples that would need to be cited within your paper. All citations must appear on the reference page, all must have been read by you and used in your paper, all references must be cited somewhere in the paper. References are listed alphabetically according to each article’s first author’s last name.
Hanging indentations are required on references: to get a hanging indentation, select the text of the reference, right click, select paragraph, under special using the drop down arrow select hanging, and make sure 0.5” appears in the box to the right. Delete the instructions after completing your references.
You should have three to five references at least three from academic journals.