Organisational Analysis Report

Facilities Management
September 9, 2019
Summarise the over-all argument
September 9, 2019

This assignment simulates a consultancy scenario where you are a team of consultants, working to deliver a report to a client. Authentic assessment tends to focus on contextualised tasks, enabling students to demonstrate their competency by actively and critically exploring, discussing, and meaningfully constructing concepts and relationships in contexts that involve real-world problems.

This assignment allow students to develop an advanced understanding of organisational functionality, through the perspective of the Functionalist and Social Relativist paradigms. Therefore, your second assignment is a group project. In groups of 3 to 5 students, you are to develop a functional specification comprising (i) process model and (ii) taxonomy of a solution to a given organisational problem.

Although you will undertake assignments in a group, individual contributions to the piece will need to be identified if requested to do so. Students are required to sign and agree to an Equity of Contribution that will outline the relative contribution of each student. Moderation will be taken if any group member does not, equally, contribute to the group assignment.

This semester, we are delighted to have Astral Consulting working with us and they have provided access to their previous consultancy case. We invite you to think about this opportunity to apply the concepts we will teach you.

The client is a global tier 2 mining company, with a head office in Australia and operations across the globe including operational sites in Latin America, Alaska, The Congo, Asia and 4 mines in Australia based in Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania. They mine a number of minerals with the main ones being Zinc, Copper and Gold and also a number of other trace materials with the various operations being at different phases of the mining life cycle.

The company has had significant growth in recent years based on acquisition of a number of companies with operations in various phases which has delivered an organisation where there are no common approaches to how each site is managed or ability to leverage lessons learnt across all sites or drive economies of scale.

A further insight is that a current project where systems are being implemented to manage all corporate financial functions and the Asset Management Module is being implemented at the operational level to manage an improve the site Assets.

 

Organisational Analysis
Assignment 2 Brief

Contents
1 Introduction to the Assignment 3
1.1 Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) 3
2 The Assignment Brief 4
2.1 Communicate, Relate and Write a Methodology 4
2.2 Deliver to the Client an Organisational Taxonomy 4
2.2.1 Applying a Business approach to Taxonomy Development 4
2.3 Deliver to the Client a Process Model 5
3 Assignment Resources 6
3.1 How the Mining Company is Organised 6
3.2 Locations – Where business functions are carried out 12
3.2.1 Organisational Artefacts 12
4 Assignment Instructions 17
5 Interview Guides 18
5.1 Interview guide (Team Mates) 18
5.2 Self-reflexive Questions (Keep Your Own Learning Notes) 19
5.3 Team Reflexive Questions 20

Introduction to the Assignment
The example of a mining company has been provided by Astral from one of their case studies. The information provided gives you an appreciation of how complex organisations can be.
This mining company has identified the following functions and related areas that support the business, across all their mining sites. This document provides separate sets of information for your case study, (i) List of Organisational Functions (ii) List of Locations (iii) List of Artefacts.
This assignment develops two analytical perspectives taught in the course, namely the Functionalist and Social Relativist.
Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)
Students must understand the course learning outcomes and how this assignment is linked to these outcomes. Use the opportunity in class to seek clarification; when the assignment is submitted, it is assumed you have understood the CLOs, and that your assignment demonstrates achievement against the relevant CLOs.
CLO Description Relation to the Assignment
CLO1 Identify different analytical perspectives employed to understand organisations at the individual, social, structural and systemic levels. Partially addresses. This assignment does not fully address the social relationships of the organisation. This assignment addresses the social through a functional perspective.
CL02 Interpret and apply these multiple perspectives to empirically analyse specific organisations and the contexts in which they operate. Addresses this CLO, in the mining context.
CLO3 Draw on different analytical perspectives as the basis for a multidisciplinary approach towards organisational functionality, political and social relations. Partially addresses this CLO. This assignment does not focus on the political aspects of the company context. It focuses on the social relations of the project team (students).
CLO4 Evaluate knowledge assumptions and come to recognise their management implications and practical consequences. Partially addresses. This assignment does not fully address the Radical Structuralist and Neohumanist implications.
CLO5 Assess and judge how organisational analysis can be used to engender solutions to organisational challenges that are socially responsible. Partially addresses. This assignment does not address the socially responsible considerations from a Radical Structuralist perspective.

The Assignment Brief
The challenge is for your team, as business analysts, to (i) design an organisational taxonomy; (ii) design a process model that makes information searching and storage intuitive (explained further below); and (iii) write a report presenting and justifying your taxonomy and process model, by drawing on the Functionalist and Social Relativist perspectives and showing how these perspectives were used.
Deliver to the Client an Organisational Taxonomy
Review your lecture – Data, Information, Knowledge
This part of the assignment is about creating a structure through which an organisation can create order and manage its knowledge. You are required to set up a taxonomy for unstructured or disorganised artefacts (explained below) and information that is being created, stored and used across different locations of a mining company. You have been asked to develop an organisational taxonomy that is managed centrally (e.g. by the corporate office), but provides a structure that captures organisational functions that are relevant to each site location that the company operates. Your taxonomy should be easily understood across all locations.
Applying a Business approach to Taxonomy Development
Organisations tend to endorse a functionalist approach (Lectures 1 – 3) to​ classifying information and records, which ensures that “records​ and their search terms (meta-data descriptions) accurately​ represent the business processes that created​ them”.
A taxonomy is a law for classifying information. The purpose of a taxonomy is to create rules around how something should be classified. Taxonomies are designed to make sense with users, and to reduce the possibility of multiple interpretations. As organisations become buried in business complexity, it becomes essential for organisations to develop taxonomies to simplify complexity, to optimise and manage the knowledge needed to carry out organisational processes, and to enable organisational members to find crucial information within their holdings.
Applying taxonomies to content and records contributes to organisational efficiency and compliance in three powerful ways:
navigation,
‘findability” (or discoverability), and
control.
Further, technology now enables multiple methods of knowledge discovery:
Browse folder;
Metadata (keyword) search;
Filters.
How would you design a business-relevant structure that would utilise the above technologies? Do not be technologists, think business!
Deliver to the Client a Process Model
Review your Lecture – Organisations as Functionality
Selecting a process modelling formalism, propose how members of the organisation might use your hierarchy, or search terms (which in modern social media platforms may be referred to as tags) to share information and knowledge across the organisation.
For this part of the assignment, your team should develop a process model to communicate the value of the taxonomy to the mining company and its organisational members, and how organisational members should use this taxonomy to ensure its value is realised.
Remember from your lecture, how a process functionalist classification can involve nesting. An example may be multiple levels of what organisations perform, e.g. function, sub-function, and activity:
A functional classification involves three levels of classification: function, sub-function, and activity:
“Function” is defined as any high-level purpose, responsibility, task, or activity which is assigned to the​ accountability agenda of an organisation by legislation, policy, or mandate. Policies and mandates may be established or imposed by bodies external to an organisation (regulators or funding bodies, for example), or by the management team within the organisation. Typical functions include​ common administrative or operational activities that are core to an organisation fulfilling its purpose, such as policy and program development, and the delivery of goods or services.
“Sub-functions” are a set or series of activities (broadly speaking, a business process) which, when​ carried out according to a prescribed sequence, will result in an individual, team, or unit​ producing the expected results, in terms of the goods or services it is​ mandated or delegated to provide.​
“Activities” are the next level of the system, taking the form of actions or transactions. ​
Communicate, Relate and Write a Methodology
The group will produce a report justifying your taxonomy and process model, showing how the analytical perspectives were used. In this report, use the methodology section to critically discuss how the Functionalist and Social Relativist perspectives were used.
To assist you in writing this section, you should draw on and include:
The Four Paradigms of Information Systems Development
The Functionalist Reading
The Social Rela1tivist reading
Remember, these are from Assignment 1.

Assignment Resources
Remember, the challenge is for your team to design a taxonomy that makes information searching and storage intuitive, and therefore easy for members of the organisation to navigate, and to store, find, and retrieve information. By “intuitive”, we mean that the taxonomy appeals to “common sense” and can be easily navigated by organisational members, rather than requiring extensive training or explanation. Functionalist classification is based on an analysis​ of the unique business functions and activities of​ an organisation, their​ administrative structure and processes. ​
How the Mining Company is Organised
Usually, a consultant will conduct several dialogues with the client involving site visits. You may see that the outline below is what has been provided to as, which the consultants have collected based on their site visits. Although the following are a relatively disconnected list of business functions and other information that you should draw on to create your proposals.
Business Communication and Branding
Branding
Communication
Internal Communication
Business Development
Integration
Mergers and Acquisitions
Project Methodology
Business Management and Compliance
Auditing
Emergency and Crisis Management
Governance and Reporting
Information Management
Legal Obligations, Compliance and Licences
Management of Change
Planning and Meetings
Risk Management
Commercial
Finance
Financial Services – Accounting
Legal Obligations, Compliance and Licences
Planning and Analysis
Sales and Marketing
Product Stewardship
Insurance
Community and External Stakeholder Relations
Community Relations
Cultural Awareness and Heritage
Government Relations
Human Rights
Incident Management
Investor Relations
Land Access and Clearing
Media Relations
Public
Resettlement
Stakeholder Relations
Engineering
Design Practice
Drawing Control
Fabrication
Specifications
Environment
Admin and Management
Air Quality Management
Biodiversity Management
Closure Planning
Energy and Green House Gas Management
Hazardous Chemicals and Dangerous Goods
Incident Management
Land and Rehabilitation Management
Mineral Waste Management
Non-Mineral Waste Management
Water Management
Exploration
Geoscience
Land and Permits
Mine Districts Exploration
New Discovery Exploration
Project Generation
Resource and Reserves
Facilities and Services
Accommodation
Aviation Management
Building and Property Services
Communications Systems and Mail
Entertainment and Lifestyle
Food and Catering
Laundry and Cleaning
Office equipment and Supplies
Security
Travel Management
Geology
Core Management
Hydrogeology – Bore Management
Land Access and Clearing
Mineral Resource
Open Pit
Resource Development
Underground
Health & Safety
Admin and Management
Hazardous Chemicals and Dangerous Goods
Incident Management
Occupational Health and Hygiene
Permit to Work and Isolation
Personal Protective Equipment – PPE
Remote Work
Work Area Inspections
IT Services
Consulting Services
Development
Production Support
Laboratory Services
Equipment
General
QA and Reporting
Sampling
Testing
Legal
Contracts
Employee Policy
Matter Management
Maintenance
Admin and Management
Fixed Plant
Infrastructure
Mobile
Mine Operations
Admin and Management
Ancillary Operations and General
Backfill
Crushing
Drill and Blast
Ground Support
Hoisting & Winder
Load and Haul
Mine Control
Water Management & De-watering
Mine Planning – Engineering
Drill and Blast
Geotechnical
Land Access and Clearing
Mine Development
Mineral Waste Management
Ore Reserve
Ventilation
Water Management
People
Change Management
Employee Files
HR Services
Induction and Training
Issue Resolution
Manage Performance
Manage Workforce Availability
Organisational Structure
Recruitment and Termination
Rewards and Benefits
Rosters
Processing
Admin and Management
Ancillary Operations and General
Crushing
Dewatering
Electro Winning
Filtration
Flotation
GeoMetallurgy
Gold Extraction, Smelting
Grinding
Leaching and Elution
Load out and Shipping
Oxygen Plant
Pressure Oxidisation
Process Control
Process Water
Pumping and Pipeline
Reagent
Solvent Extraction
Storage
Tailings and Water Discharge
Thickening
Transportation
Strategy and Planning
Business Planning
Business Strategy and Roadmaps
Initiatives
IT Architecture
Life of Asset
Operating Model
Research Library
Supply Chain
Contractor Management
Customs and Excise
Inventory
Logistics
Procurement
Vendor Management
Warehousing and Supply
Survey
Equipment
General
Open Pit
Surface
Underground

Locations – Where business functions are carried out
The mining company maintains operations across the following locations. The following information shows you an additional layer of complexity when managing a company of this size, where location-specific functions are being performed.
Group Office (Melbourne)
Western Australian Mine Site 1
Queensland Mine Site 2
Sepon Regional Office Site
Laos Mine Site 3
The Congo Mine Site 4
Johannesburg – Regional Office
Tasmania Mine Site 5
Hong Kong Regional Office
Vancouver Regional Office
Queensland Mine Site 6
Latin America Mine Site 7
Americas Regional Office Vancouver
Alaska Mine 8

Organisational Artefacts
The Mining Company has identified the following types of documents that are used as either input to or outputs from the different business processes that are undertaken as part of the functions described above. These should also be taken into consideration when designing the Organisational Taxonomy.
Hint: Hierarchy of artefact types
For management of disorganised information the following ideas are included in this example taxonomy:
Artefact Types and Sub-Types:
Policy
Procedure
Work Instruction
Document
Report
Contract
Plan

For your assignment, Astral has provided a list of artefact types are used to drive functionality in the mining company. The following are examples of artefacts that organisations produce. Artefact sub-types can be added to provide complimentary classification and functionality. Please create your own taxonomy based on the artefacts from the table below.
Type of Document  Sub Types
Administration, Meetings, Planning  Agenda
Minutes
Project
Presentation
Terms of Reference
Travel
Agreement  Compensation
Contract
Insurance Policy
Service
Guarantee
Warranty
Interface
Controlled Document  Assessment Guideline
External
Form
Position Description
Information Sheet
Instructional Presentation
Management Plan
Company Policy
Company Standard
Company Strategy
Procedure
Process Definition
Reference Material
Training Module
Work Instruction
Drawing  Instrument Loop Diagram
Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID)
Single Line Diagram (SLD)
Reticulation Switching Diagram
Termination Diagram
Schematic Diagram
DCS Block Diagram
Site Layout Plan
Details
Arrangement
Standards
Sketch
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Correspondence  Email
Memo
Bulletins, Posters, Flash – IEM
Letter
Design and Data  Data Sheets
Design
IT Architecture
PLC Ladder
Register
Requirements
Specification
Survey
Financial  Authorisation
Budget – Forecast
Lodgement
Tax Technical Reference
Invoices
Reasonably Arguable Positions
Purchase Order
HR & Training  Personnel Record
Induction or Training Record
Scheduling
Permit, License or Consent  Authority or Appointment
Consent
License
Permit
Tenement
Registration
Physical Item  Artefacts
Document
Drawings
Maps
Media
References
Sample
Vendor Manual
Bulletins & Posters (Flash – IEM)
Report  Audit
Conference
Environment
Financial
Governance
Health & Safety
Inspection, Test or Calibration
Planning
Production
Status
Research
Technical
Risk Assessment Enterprise
Major Hazard
Social and Environmental Impact Assessment
Manual Handling – ergonomic
Hazardous Chemicals and Dangerous Goods
Design Reviews
Other – Plant, Noise, Confined Space, Radiation

Assignment Instructions
In groups of 3 to 5 students, respond to the problem presented to you, producing a report of no more than 4,000 words, excluding references. Your group reflection counts towards the 4,000 words. Your group reflection component must be no more than 1,000 words.
Each group member will follow the steps of the RSD to help manage their assignment.
Collectively, you will go through a process of enquiry, clarification and problem definition and problem solving.
The problem solving and clarification process must also involve interviewing one another and role playing what analysts do when executing a project for a client. Follow the interview guide and contribute additional questions that you develop on your own.
The report must contain:
a model showing your business taxonomy, identifying how the functional and social relativist perspectives were used to develop your process model, that show, for example: In developing your taxonomy, your team can leverage all of these or a combination of these to make it easier to discover the information you are looking for to create a fundamental structure that determines how people search for relevant information. There are, both, the practice (how) of developing the taxonomy, as well as the actual taxonomy (outcome) that you are creating.
a justification of your taxonomy and process model, based on a synthesis of the literature that shows how the Functionalist and Social Relativist perspectives were used to develop your taxonomy and process model.
a reference list showing your group’s independent research into different areas that inform the context and solution. Do not indulge in descriptive writing, but be incisive and critique the literature. If the literature becomes too long, you may relegate your literature summaries to the appendix of the report and include highly relevant literature critiques to support your design and considerations.
an Appendix, which contains a critical group-reflection that analyses your learning (lessons learnt) throughout the assignment (this appendix must be no more than 1,000 words).
As individuals, maintain your own learning and self-reflection notes, e.g. a learning diary. Actively think about what readings influence your thinking and how and why your outlook has changed or become influenced as you read.
Ensure you review and update your class leader on your weekly progress.

Interview Guides
To assist your self-reflection and group-reflection, and to follow the steps of the RSD, use the following as guides.
Interview guide (Team Mates)
You are playing the role of analysts in a project team. Use these interview questions for your team mates.
In developing your taxonomy, your team can leverage all of these or a combination of these to make it easier to discover the information you are looking for to create a fundamental structure that determines how people search for relevant information. There are, both, the practice (how) of developing the taxonomy, as well as the actual taxonomy (outcome) that you are creating.

Have you read the briefs about the organisation’s functions, artefacts and locations?
Which of the four stories from Hirschheim and Klein’s reading do we draw upon for this assignment, as analysts?
What university discipline are you studying? Example, are you marketing, management, engineering, human resources?
For this assignment, do you feel there is a particular area of the mining company’s functionality the team should focus on?
For this assignment, by looking at the functional structures provided in the brief, can you identify what a taxonomy is, or the beginnings of a taxonomy?
Looking at the mining company brief, function, location and artefacts are separately defined. How would you combine the three into one taxonomy?
Looking at the mining company brief, what would be the best way to find information most efficiently? E.g. a person is looking for an artefact. Where should they be stored for someone to find intuitively?
From the mining company’s brief, what information or knowledge is in danger of becoming hidden and hard to discover?
In reviewing the list of artefacts, do they adequately capture the experiences and knowledge of organisational members?
Which business function would you appoint to manage this taxonomy? If this function does not exist, what new business function would you create?
How would you promote knowledge sharing between separate functions?
Is there a function that you consider to be the most appropriate for managing this taxonomy?
What kinds of information are privileged in the organistion’s hierarchy? Example, should there be access based on role or organisational position?
Have we considered whether functions will be empowered through this hierarchy?
What conclusions would a stranger, i.e. someone completely detached from the organisation, conclude from reading the taxonomy, whether adequately addressed organisational social responsibility challenges?
……..add other questions you think about

Self-reflexive Questions (Keep Your Own Learning Notes)
Interview guide with questions to ask yourself.
Were the stories from Hirschheim and Klein’s reading that our group drew upon for this assignment relevant? Why, why not?
Which perspective resonates most with me?
Do I tend to accept different perspectives? In what contexts or circumstances?
Have the readings influenced or changed my thinking?
Have the readings broadened my perspective?
How did my disciplinary background affect my input into this assignment?
……..add other questions you think about

Team Reflexive Questions
Interview guide with questions to reflect as a team
As a project team, reflect on how much you learned about businesses, complexity and analytical perspectives, just by trying to create a unified taxonomy for this case study!
How did the team interpret and apply multiple perspectives to analyse this specific organisation and the contexts in which it operates?
What processes did we use as a team to reconcile multiple interpretations of the assignment brief, and the taxonomy and process model we produced?
How did the team evaluate the knowledge assumptions associated with the perspectives chosen, and come to recognise their management implications and practical consequences?
……..add other questions you think about

                                                                                                                        EliteHomework